Suhermin Suhermin, Okto Aditya Suryawirawan, Abdul Talib Bon


Countless businesses had to close permanently, and workers had to be laid off during Covid-19 pandemic, thus the emergence of entrepreneurs is crucial for Indonesia's economic recovery. This study aims to analyze further the extended systemic entrepreneurship intention model and its impact on students in Surabaya. Purposive sampling was used toward 205 students. Results were analyzed using partial least square through SmartPLS. Reciprocal relationships among all the antecedent variables of entrepreneurial intention were found to be positive and significant. Regarding the impact of the antecedent variables of entrepreneurial intention such as perceived convenience, risk tolerance, perceived feasibility and attitude, only perceived feasibility was found to have no effect on entrepreneurial intention. There are no differences in entrepreneurial intention among students with or without entrepreneurial family backgrounds. There are no differences in entrepreneurial intention among students with or without prior entrepreneurial experience. This study provides implication towards students’ entrepreneurial intention during covid-19 pandemic and the robustness of systemic entrepreneurship intention model in predicting it.


Systemic Entrepreneurship Intention; Family Background; Prior Entrepreneurial Experience

Full Text:



Acs, Z. J. and Audretsch, D. B. 2005. Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Technological Change. Foundations and Trends® in Entrepreneurship, 1(4), pp. 149–195. DOI:

Agbonna, A. R. 2022. Moderating Effect of Mentorship on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Learning and Attitude towards Entrepreneurship. International Journal of Economics, Commerce, and Management, 10(1), pp. 89–106.

Ahmad, S. Z., Ahmad, N., and Papastathopoulos, A. 2019. Measuring Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction of the Small- and Medium-Sized Hotels (SMSHs) Industry: Lessons from United Arab Emirates (UAE). Tourism Review, 74(3), pp. 349–370. DOI:

Ajzen, I. 1991. The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), pp. 179–211. DOI:

Alkhatib, K., Al-Aiad, A., Mustafa, M., and Alzubi, S. 2021. Impact Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention of Jordanian Private Universities Students: A Mediation Analysis of Perception toward Entrepreneurship. In Sustainable and Energy Efficient Computing Paradigms for Society, pp. 53–65. DOI:

Aloulou, W. J. 2021. The Influence of Institutional Context on Entrepreneurial Intention: Evidence from the Saudi Young Community. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, (ahead-of-print). DOI:

Aparicio, S., Urbano, D., and Audretsch, D. 2016. Institutional Factors, Opportunity Entrepreneurship, and Economic Growth: Panel Data Evidence. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 102, pp. 45–61. DOI:

Bagozzi, R. P., Baumgartner, J., and Yi, Y. 1989. An Investigation into the Role of Intentions as Mediators of the Attitude-Behavior Relationship. Journal of Economic Psychology, 10(1), pp. 35–62. DOI:

Baharuddin, G. and Ab-Rahman, A. 2021. What is the Most Effective Antecedent for Developing Entrepreneurial Intention among Muslim Youth in Indonesia?. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 9(1), pp. 75–88.

Bennani, A. and Oumlil, R. 2014. Acceptance of E-Entrepreneurship by Future Entrepreneurs in Developing Countries : Case of Morocco. DOI:

Bird, B. 1988. Implementing Entrepreneurial Ideas: The Case for Intention. The Academy of Management Review, 13. DOI:

Bogatyreva, K., Edelman, L. F., Manolova, T. S., Osiyevskyy, O., and Shirokova, G. 2019. When do Entrepreneurial Intentions Lead to Actions? The Role of National Culture. Journal of Business Research, 96, pp. 309–321. DOI:

Bui, T. H. V., Nguyen, T. L. T., Tran, M. D., and Nguyen, Thi Anh Thu. 2020. Determinants Influencing Entrepreneurial Intention among Undergraduates in Universities of Vietnam. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 7(7), pp. 369–378. DOI:

Charles, K. K. and Hurst, E. 2003. The Correlation of Wealth across Generations. Journal of Political Economy, 111(6), pp. 1155–1182. DOI:

Chin, W. W. 1998. The Partial Least Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modeling. Advances in Hospitality and Leisure.

Cramer, J. S., Hartog, J., Jonker, N., and Van Praag, C. M. 2002. Low-Risk Aversion Encourages the Choice for Entrepreneurship: An Empirical Test of a Truism. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 48(1), pp. 29–36. DOI: DOI: DOI:

Díez-Echavarría, L., Arias, A. V., Hernández, J. B., Pérez, F. O. M., Marín, M. L. U., and Velásquez, J. A. T. 2019. Extension of the Systemic Entrepreneurship Intention Model in University Students. Serbian Journal of Management, 14(2), pp. 277–297.

Doanh, D. C. 2021. The Role of Contextual Factors on Predicting Entrepreneurial Intention among Vietnamese Students. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 9(1), pp. 169–188.

Drăgan, G. B., Panait, A. A., and Schin, G. C. 2021. Tracking Precursors of Entrepreneurial Intention: The Case of Researchers Involved in Eco-Label Industry. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. DOI:

Endres, A. M. and Woods, C. R. 2010. Schumpeter's 'Conduct Model of the Dynamic Entrepreneur': Scope and Distinctiveness. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 20(4), pp. 583–607. DOI:

Falk, R. F. and Miller, N. B. 1992. A Primer for Soft Modeling. The University of Akron Press.

Fishbein, M. and Ajzen, I. 1975. Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behaviour: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Vol. 27.

Gorgievski, M. J., Stephan, U., Laguna, M., and Moriano, J. A. 2018. Predicting Entrepreneurial Career Intentions: Values and the Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of Career Assessment, 26(3), pp. 457–475.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., Hult, G. T. M., and Sarstedt, M. 2014. A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling. SAGE Publications, Inc.

Herman, E. 2019. Entrepreneurial Intention among Engineering Students and Its Main Determinants. Procedia Manufacturing, 32, pp. 318–324. DOI:

Ibidunni, A. S., Mozie, D., and Ayeni, A. W. A. A. 2020. Entrepreneurial Characteristics amongst University Students: Insights for Understanding Entrepreneurial Intentions amongst Youths in a Developing Economy. Education + Training, 63(1), pp. 71–84. DOI:

Joensuu-Salo, S., Viljamaa, A., and Varamäki, E. 2020. Do Intentions Ever Die? The Temporal Stability of Entrepreneurial Intention and Link to Behavior. Education+ Training.

Kadir, M. B. A., Salim, M., and Kamarudin, H. 2012. The Relationship between Educational Support and Entrepreneurial Intentions in Malaysian Higher Learning Institutions. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, pp. 2164–2173.

Karimi, S., Biemans, H. J. A., Lans, T., Chizari, M., Mulder, M., and Mahdei, K. N. 2013. Understanding Role Models and Gender Influences on Entrepreneurial Intentions among College Students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, pp. 204–214.

Kim, M.-S. and Hunter, J. E. 1993. Relationships among Attitudes, Behavioral Intentions, and Behavior. Communication Research, 20(3), pp. 331–364. DOI:

Kompas. 2020. Dua Sektor Ini Tuai Keuntungan di Masa Pandemi Covid-19. Kompas.Com.

Langevang, T. and Gough, K. V. 2012. Diverging Pathways: Young Female Employment and Entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Geographical Journal, 178(3), pp. 242–252. DOI:

Lavelle, B. A. 2021. Entrepreneurship Education's Impact on Entrepreneurial Intention Using the Theory of Planned Behavior: Evidence from Chinese Vocational College Students. Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy, 4(1), pp. 30–51.

Lee, L., Wong, P. K., Foo, M. Der, and Leung, A. 2011. Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Influence of Organizational and Individual Factors. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(1), pp. 124–136. DOI:

Leiva, J. C., Mora-Esquivel, R., Krauss-Delorme, C., Bonomo-Odizzio, A., and Solís-Salazar, M. 2021. Entrepreneurial Intention among Latin American University Students. Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 34(3), pp. 399–418. DOI:

Li, C., Murad, M., Shahzad, F., Khan, M. A. S., Ashraf, S. F., and Dogbe, C. S. K. 2020. Entrepreneurial Passion to Entrepreneurial Behavior: Role of Entrepreneurial Alertness, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Proactive Personality. Frontiers in Psychology, 11. DOI:

Mair, J. and Martí, I. 2006. Social Entrepreneurship Research: A Source of Explanation, Prediction, and Delight. Journal of World Business, 41(1), pp. 36–44. DOI:

Meyer, N. and Meyer, D. F. 2017. An Econometric Analysis of Entrepreneurial Activity, Economic Growth, and Employment: The Case of the BRICS Countries. International Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(2), pp. 429–441.

Ndubisi, N. O. Jantan, M., and Richardson, S. 2001. Is the Technology Acceptance Model Valid for Entrepreneurs? Model Testing and Examining Usage Determinants. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 6(2), pp. 31–54.

Otache, I., Edopkolor, J. E., and Okolie, U. C. 2021. Entrepreneurial Self-Confidence, Perceived Desirability and Feasibility of Hospitality Business and Entrepreneurial Intentions of Hospitality Management Technology Students. The International Journal of Management Education, 19(2), pp. 100507. DOI:

Otchengco Jr., A. M. and Akiate, Y. W. D. 2021. Entrepreneurial Intentions on Perceived Behavioral Control and Personal Attitude: Moderated by Structural Support. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 15(1), pp. 14–25. DOI:

Parker, S. C. 2018. The Economics of Entrepreneurship (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. DOI:

Roy, R. and Das, N. 2020. Exploring Entrepreneurial Intention among Engineering Students in India: A Multiple Basket Approach. International Journal of Technology and Design Education. DOI:

Sajjad, S. I. Shafi, H., and Dad, A. M. 2012. Impact of Culture on Entrepreneur Intention. Information Management and Business Review, 4(1), pp. 30–34. DOI:

Salamzadeh, A., Farjadian, A. A., Amirabadi, M., and Modarresi, M. 2014. Entrepreneurial Characteristics: Insights from Undergraduate Students in Iran. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 21(2), pp. 165. DOI:

Segal, G., Borgia, D., and Schoenfeld, J. 2005. The Motivation to Become an Entrepreneur. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 11(1), pp. 42–57. DOI:

Shapero, A. and Sokol, L. 1982. The Social Dimensions of Entrepreneurship. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship.

Suryawirawan, O. A. 2020. Theory of Planned Behavior Approach and Gender Differences on Students' Intention to Practice Online Business. Jurnal Dinamika Manajemen, 10, pp. 138–147. DOI:

Suryawirawan, O. A. 2021. The Effect of College Students' Technology Acceptance on E-Commerce Adoption. BISMA (Bisnis dan Manajemen), 14(1), pp. 46–63.

Szczepanik, V. and Casais, B. 2021. The Influence of the Field of Study and Entrepreneurship Course in Entrepreneurial Intention Among University Students. In Universities and Entrepreneurship: Meeting the Educational and Social Challenges (Contemporary Issues in Entrepreneurship Research), Vol. 11, pp. 117–131. DOI:

Tiwari, P., Bhat, A. K., Tikoria, J., and Saha, K. 2019. Exploring the Factors Responsible in Predicting Entrepreneurial Intention among Nascent Entrepreneurs. South Asian Journal of Business Studies, 9(1), pp. 1–18. DOI:

Torres-Velásquez, J. A., Valencia-Arias, A., Bermúdez-Hernández, J., Díez-Echavarría, L. F., Urrego-Marín, M. L., and Maussa-Pérez, F. O. 2018. Characterization of Entrepreneurial Intention in University Students as from Systemic Entrepreneurship Intention Model: A Case Study. Cuadernos de Gestión, 18(2), pp. 95–114. DOI:

Usman, B. and Yennita. 2019. Understanding the Entrepreneurial Intention among International Students in Turkey. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 9(1), pp. 10. DOI:

Valencia-Arias, A., Cadavid, L., Ríos, C., and Awad, G. 2012. Factors Influencing the Entrepreneurial Intentions of Students. Revista Venezolana de Gerencia, 17(57), pp. 132–148.

Wardana, L. W., Narmaditya, B. S., Wibowo, A., Saraswati, T. T., and Indriani, R. 2021. Drivers of Entrepreneurial Intention among Economics Students in Indonesia. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 9(1), pp. 61–74.

Welsh, D. H. B., Othman, D., Alserhan, B., Zeqiri, J., Al-Madadha, A., and Ramadani, V. 2021. The Impact of the International Crisis on the Entrepreneurial Intentions of Refugees. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, ahead-of-print. DOI:

Westhead, P. and Solesvik, M. Z. 2016. Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intentions: Do Female Students Benefit?. International Small Business Journal, 34(8), pp. 979–1003.

Yi, G. 2021. From Green Entrepreneurial Intentions to Green Entrepreneurial Behaviors: The Role of University Entrepreneurial Support and External Institutional Support. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 17(2), pp. 963–979. DOI:

Younis, A., Xiaobao, P., Nadeem, M. A., Kanwal, S., Pitafi, A. H., Qiong, G., and Yuzhen, D. 2021. Impact of Positivity and Empathy on Social Entrepreneurial Intention: The Moderating Role of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Public Affairs, 21(1). DOI:

Yousaf, U., Ali, S. A., Ahmed, M., Usman, B., and Sameer, I. 2021. From Entrepreneurial Education to Entrepreneurial Intention: A Sequential Mediation of Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Attitude. International Journal of Innovation Science, 13(3), pp. 364–380. DOI:

Zhang, S.-N., Li, Y.-Q., Liu, C.-H., and Ruan, W.-Q. 2020. Critical Factors Identification and Prediction of Tourism and Hospitality Students' Entrepreneurial Intention. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, 26, pp. 100234. DOI:



  • There are currently no refbacks.