Aditya Pramono, Mintarti Rahayu, Djumilah Hadiwidjojo


This research was aimed to determine the direct and indirect effect of justice perception, which would be analyzed in this research and based on three dimensions as distributive justice, interactional justice, and procedural justice to the customer affection and loyalty of patients in Xxx Hospital Malang. The research population covered the patients or families who have complained about service failure in the hospital. This data was based on the data from the public relation of Xxx Hospital Malang in 2018. The total sample was 232 respondents who had been selected through the saturated sampling method. The data was analyzed through the Partial Least Square PLS technique in SmartPLS 3.0 program application. The research finding indicated that distributive justice did not significantly affect customer affection from the three construct dimensions of justice perception. In contrast, the interactional justice and procedural justice affected positively and significantly the customer affection, and then the customer affection affected positively and significantly patient loyalty. This result showed that the higher interactional justice and procedural justice of patients would determine the higher customer affection of patients to Xxx Hospital Malang. The higher customer affection would determine the higher patient loyalty. For further research is recommended to re-explore the research variables that might affect the customer affection and loyalty directly on similar research objects or other hospitals, for instance, customer satisfaction, revisit intention, WOM, and other aspects. The next researches should also be done by developing the research model and using samples with different characteristics. 


Distributive Justice; Interactional Justice; Procedural Justice; Customer Affection; Loyalty

Full Text:



Andreassen, T. W. 1999. What Drives Customer Loyalty With Complaint Resolution?. Journal of Service Research, 1(4), 324–332.

Blodgett, J. G., Hill, D. J., and Tax, S. S. 1997. 1 The Effects of Distributive , Procedural , and ~ Interactional Justice on Postcomplaint Behavior. 73(2), 185–210.

Brown, S. W., Gallan, A. S., Brown, S. W., and Gallan, A. S. 2008. Management.

Carroll, B. A. and Ahuvia, A. C. 2006. Some Antecedents and Outcomes of Brand Love. Marketing Letters, 17(2), 79–89.

Chebat, J. and Slusarczyk, W. 2005. How Emotions Mediate The Effects of Perceived Justice on Loyalty in Service Recovery Situations : An Empirical Study. 58, 664–673.

Cheung, F. Y. M. and To, W. M. 2016. A Customer-Dominant Logic on Service Recovery and Customer Satisfaction. Management Decision, 54(10), 2524–2543.

Choi, B. and Choi, B. J. 2014. The Effects of Perceived Service Recovery Justice on Customer Affection, Loyalty, and Word-of-Mouth. European Journal of Marketing, 48(1), 108–131.

DeWitt, T., Nguyen, D. T., and Marshall, R. 2008. Exploring Customer Loyalty Following Service Recovery. Journal of Service Research, 10(3), 269–281.

Fournier, S., Dobscha, S., and Mick, D. G. 1998. Preventing The Premature Death of Relationship Marketing. Harvard Business Review, 76(1), 42–44.

Fournier, S. 1998. Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343–353.

Goodwin, C. and Ross, I. 1992. Consumer Responses to Service Failures : Influence of Procedural and Interactional Fairness Perceptions. 163, 149–163.

Harris, K. E., Grewal, D., Mohr, L. A., and Bernhardt, K. L. 2006. Consumer Responses to Service Recovery Strategies : The Moderating Role of Online Versus Offline Environment. 59, 425–431.

Homburg, C. and Fürst, A. 2005. How Organizational Complaint Handling Drives Customer Loyalty: An Analysis of The Mechanistic and The Organic Approach. Journal of Marketing, 69(3), 95–114.

Jung, N. Y. and Seock, Y. K. 2017. Effect of Service Recovery on Customers’ Perceived Justice, Satisfaction, and Word-Of-Mouth Intentions on Online Shopping Websites. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 37(January), 23–30.

Kau, A. and Loh, E. W. Y. 2006. The Effects of Service Recovery on Consumer Satisfaction: A Comparison Between Complainants and Non‐Complainants. Journal of Services Marketing, 20(2), 101–111.

Kuo, Y. F. and Wu, C. M. 2012. Satisfaction and Post-Purchase Intentions with Service Recovery of Online Shopping Websites: Perspectives on Perceived Justice and Emotions. International Journal of Information Management, 32(2), 127–138.

Matos, C. A., De Alberto, C., Rossi, V., and Veiga, R. T. 2009. Consumer Reaction to Service Failure and Recovery : The Moderating Role of Attitude Toward Complaining. 7(September 2007), 462–475.

Maxham, J. G. 2001. Service Recovery’s Influence on Consumer Satisfaction, Positive Word-Of-Mouth, and Purchase Intentions. Journal of Business Research, 54(1), 11–24.

Maxham, J. G. and Netemeyer, R. G. 2002. A Longitudinal Study of Complaining Customers’ Evaluations of Multiple Service Failures and Recovery Efforts. Journal of Marketing, 66(4), 57–71.

Mccoll-Kennedy, J. R., Daus, C. S., and Sparks, B. A. 2003. The Role of Gender in Reactions to Service Failure and Recovery. Journal of Service Research, 6(1), 66–82.

Mccollough, M. A., Berry, L. L., and Yadav, M. S. 2000. An Empirical Investigation of Customer Satisfaction after Service Failure and Recovery. Journal of Service Research, 3(2), 121–137.

Miller, R. 1987. Hospital Pre‐Admission Orientation and Patient Satisfaction. Möbius: A Journal for Continuing Education Professionals in Health Sciences, 7(2), 16–22.

Namkung, Y. and Jang, S. C. 2010. Effects of Perceived Service Fairness on Emotions, and Behavioral Intentions in Restaurants. European Journal of Marketing, 44(9), 1233–1259.

Oliver, R. L. 1980. A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17(4)(November), 460–469.

Patel, A. G., Reber, P. U., and Ghosh, S. 1995. Patient Satisfaction and Postoperative Demands on Hospital and Community Services after Day Surgery. British Journal of Surgery, 82(5), 714–715.

Roschk, H., Müller, J., and Gelbrich, K. 2013. Age Matters: How Developmental Stages of Adulthood Affect Customer Reaction to Complaint Handling Efforts. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20(2), 154–164.

Schoefer, K. and Diamantopoulos, A. 2008. The Role of Emotions in Translating Perceptions of (In)Justice into Postcomplaint Behavioral Responses. Journal of Service Research, 11(1), 91–103.

Sheth, J. and Mittal, B. 2004. Customer Behavior: A Managerial Perspective.

Smith, A. K., Bolton, R. N., and Wagner, J. 1999. A Model of Customer Satisfaction with Service Encounters Involving Failure and Recovery. Journal of Marketing Research, 36(3), 356–372.

Stauss, B. 2010. The Dimensions of Complaint Satisfaction : Process and Outcome Complaint Satisfaction Versus Cold Fact and Warm Act Complaint Satisfaction.

Tax, S. S., Brown, S. W., and Chandrashekaran, M. 1998. Customer Evaluations of Service Complaint Experiences : Implications. 62(April), 60–76.

Thompson, M., MacInnis, D., and Park, W. 2005. The Ties that Bind: Measuring The Strength of Customers Attachment to Brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(1), 77–91.

Utama, A. 2003. Analisis Pengaruh Persepsi Kualitas Pelayanan Terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan Rumah Sakit Umum Cakra Husada Klaten. 1(2), 96–110.

Weiss, H. M., Suckow, K., and Cropanzano, R. 1999. Effects of Justice Conditions on Discrete Emotions. 84(5), 786–794.

Weun, S., Beatty, S. E., and Jones, M. A. 2004. The Impact of Service Failure Severity on Service Recovery Evaluations and Post-Recovery Relationships. Journal of Services Marketing, 18(2), 133–146.

Wirtz, J. and Mattila, A. S. 2003. Consumer Responses to Compensation, Speed of Recovery and Apology After a Service Failure.

Wu, W. Y., Qomariyah, A., Sa, N. T. T., and Liao, Y. 2018. The Integration between Service Value and Service Recovery in the Hospitality Industry: An Application of QFD and ANP. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 75(4), 48–57.

Yim, C. K., Tse, D. K., and Chan, K. W. 2008. Strengthening Customer Loyalty through Intimacy and Passion: Roles of Customer–Firm Affection and Customer–Staff Relationships in Services. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(6), 741–756.

Young, L. 2006. Trust: Looking Forward and Back. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 21(7), 439–445.



  • There are currently no refbacks.