Sinta Ayu Kurniawati, Sari Wahyuni


The aim of this study is to determine the role of employee development carried out by garment companies to minimize the emergence of turnover intention among garment workers in Indonesia. This study using survey data conducted by the collaborations between the University of Indonesia (UI), Tufts University (TU), Better Work-ILO (BW) and Real-TimeAnalytics (RTA) Vietnam, which is collected from 109 garment companies and 2580 respondents in the garment sector. The data were analyzed using structural equation models (SEM) with Lisrel 8.8. The results show that employee development is able to increase the growth mindset and empowerment perceived by workers, therefore reduce turnover intention among workers in the garment industry. However, the findings also reveal that it turns out that employee development cannot improve the job security perceived by workers. These results provide significant input to human resource development in Indonesia. Further studies may consider the effect of the growth mindset on job security. It is expected that employee development will have a positive impact on empowerment as well as job security through a growth mindset which ultimately minimizing the emergence of turnover intention.


employee development; growth mindset; empowerment; job security; turnover intention; a garment worker

Full Text:



Albrecht, S L and Manuela Andretta. 2011. The Influence of Empowering Leadership, Empowerment and Engagement on Affective Commitment and Turnover Intentions in Community Health Service Workers. Leadership in Health Services Vol.24 No.3.

Bagshaw, Michael. 1996. Creating employability: how can training and development square the circle between individual and corporate interest?. Industrial and Commercial Training Volume 28 · Number 1 · 1996 · pp. 16–18.

Beehr, T. A., Nair, V. N., Gudanowski, D. M., and Such, M. 2004. Perceptions of Reasons for Promotion of Self and Others. Human Relations, 57(4), 413–438.

Bhuiyan, M. Z. A. 2012. Present Status of Garment Workers in Bangladesh: An Analysis. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 3(5), 38–44.

Blau, Gary. 1993. Further Exploring The Relationship Between Job Search and Voluntary Individual Turnover. Personnel Psychology, Summer 1993 46 (2).

Cammann, C., Fichman, M., Jenkins, G. D., Jr., and Klesh, J. R. 1983. Assessing the attitudes and perceptions of organizational members. In Seashore, S. E., Lawler, E. E., III, Mirvis, P., and Cammann, C. (eds.), Assessing Organizational Change, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 71–138.

Davy, Jeanette A., Angelo J. Kinicki and Christine L. Scheck. 1997. A Test of Job Security’s Direct and Mediated Effects on Withdrawal Cognitions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Jul. 1997), pp. 323-349S

Dweck, C. 2016. What Having A “ Growth Mindset “ Actually Means. Harvard Business Review, (January 13, 2016), 4.

Dweck, C.S. and Leggett, E.L. 1988. A Social-Cognitive Approach to Motivation and Personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256-273.

Hanaysha, J. 2016. Examining The Effects of Employee Empowerment, Teamwork, and Employee Training on Organizational Commitment. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 298–306.

Hellgren, J., Sverke, M., and Isaksson, K. 1999. A twodimensional approach to job insecurity: Consequences for employee attitudes and well-being. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(2), 179-195.

Heslin, P. A. 2010. Mindsets and Employee Engagement: Theoretical Linkages and Practical Interventions. Handbook of Employee Engagement: Perspectives, Issues, Research and Practice., (October), 218–226.

Imron, Annisa Halimah, Mutia Pramesti, Sari Wahyuni. 2017. Why Gender Inequality Still Appearing in Garment Factories in Indonesia?. Advance in Economics, Business and Management Research, Vol. 36.

Kador, Armstrong. 2010. Perfect Phrases for Writing Employee Survey. Mc Graw Hill.

Keating, L. A., and Heslin, P. A. 2015. The Potential Role of Mindsets in Unleashing Employee Engagement. Human Resource Management Review, 25(4), 329– 341.

Kim, S. Y., and Fernandez, S. 2015. Employee Empowerment and Turnover Intention in The U.S. Federal Bureaucracy. American Review of Public Administration, 47(1), 4–22.

Kim, Soonhee. 2012. The Impact of Human Resource Management on State Government IT Employee Turnover Intention. Public Personnel Management Summer, 41(2).

Koch, M. J., and Mcgrath, R. G. 1996. Improving Labor Productivity/ : Human Resource Management Policies Do Matter. Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 17, No. 5 (May 1996), pp. 335-354.

Kohlrausch, B., and Rasner, A. 2014. Workplace Training in Germany and Its Impact on Subjective Job Security: Short- Or Long-Term Returns?. Journal of European Social Policy, 24(4), 337–350.

Konst, Taru (e. Penttilä), Minna Scheinin. 2018. The changing world has implications on the higher education and the teaching profession. On the Horizon, Vol. 26 Issue: 1, pp.1-8.

Kruja, Drita., Huong Ha, Elvisa Drishti, Ted Oelfke. 2015. Empowerment in the Hospitality Industry in the United States. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management.

Lahey, MA., Kunhert KW. 1988. The meaning and Measure of Job Security. University of Georgia.

Lee, C. H., and Bruvold, N. T. 2003. Creating Value for Employees: Investment in Employee Development. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(6), 981–1000.

Lou, J.-H., Yu, H.-Y., and Chen, S.-H. 2010. Factors affecting the career development of male nurses: A structural equation model. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(4), 900–910.

Malik, Ehsan, M., Qaiser Danish, R., and Munir, Y. 2012. The Impact of Pay and Promotion on Job Satisfaction: Evidence from Higher Education Institutes of Pakistan. American Journal of Economics, 2(4), 6– 9.

Mathieu, J. E., Gilson, L. L., and Ruddy, T. M. 2006. Em- powerment and team effectiveness: An empirical test of anintegrated model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91: 97-108.

Njagi, Lucy Karimi. 2012. Relationship Between Social Capital and Employee Promotion. International Journal of Business and Commerce, 1(10), 1–13.

Orhan Çýnara, Fatih Karcýoðlub, Ýmran Aslanc. 2014. The relationships among Organizational Cynicism, Job Insecurity and Turnover Intention: A Survey Study in Erzurum/Turkey. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 150 (2014) 429 – 437.

Osterreich, S. T. 2011. Precarious Work I Global Exports: The Case of Indonesia.

Rahman, W., and Nas, Z. 2013. Employee Development and Turnover Intention: Theory Validation. European Journal of Training and Development, 37(6), 564–579.

Rubel, M. R. B., and Kee, D. M. H. 2015. Perceived Fairness of Performance Appraisal, Promotion Opportunity and Nurses Turnover Intention: The Role of Organizational Commitment. Asian Social Science, 11(9), 183–197.

Schmidt, S. W. 2004. Job Training and Job Satisfaction Survey Technical Manual, 36. East Carolina University.

Spreitzer GM. 1995. Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Dimensions, Measurement, and Validation. Academy of Management Journal 1995 Vol. 38 No. 5, pp. 1442-1465.

Tett, R. P. and Meyer, J. P. 1993. Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention and turnover: Path analysis based on meta analytical findings. Personal Psychology, 46(2): 259-293.

Wahyuni, Sari., David Wilfrid Nadapdap. 2015. Critical Review on Labor Factors and Country Competitiveness: Comparison between Indonesia and Jordan. International Journal of Business and Social Research Volume 05, Issue 05, 2015.

Wayne, Sandy J., Lynn M. Shore and Robert C. Liden. 1997. Perceived Organizational Support and Leader-Member Exchange: A Social Exchange Perspective. Academy of Management Vol. 40 No. 1, 82–111.



  • There are currently no refbacks.