Lydia Nafarin, Adrie Oktavio


The number of online applications users of food and beverage delivery services in Indonesia is growing every year. That is also followed by many culinary entrepreneurs who have established partnerships with online applications. One of the major online food and beverage delivery service applications in Indonesia is Grabfood. Through Grabfood, products ordered online by users will be delivered to their homes in a relatively short time. Ordering food and drinks through Grabfood is also very beneficial for users because they can enjoy a variety of attractive promotions, both in the form of food and beverage discounts, cashback, shipping cost discounts, and so on. One of the promotional strategies carried out by Grabfood is to do scarcity marketing. This study aims to observe whether the scarcity marketing carried out by Grabfood can affect the desirability of Grabfood users and at the same time examine the role of perceived uniqueness as an intervening variable in the model developed by this study. Scarcity marketing in the study is divided into two types, namely limited-quantity scarcity and limited-time scarcity. The sample in this study involved one hundred and thirteen active users of the Grabfood application who have filled out a complete online questionnaire. The data processing results show that limited-quantity scarcity and limited-time scarcity can directly have a positive and significant effect on perceived uniqueness and desirability. Furthermore, perceived uniqueness also has a direct positive and significant effect on desirability. In its position as an intervening variable, the construct of perceived uniqueness can partially mediate the relationship between limitedquantity scarcity and limited-time scarcity on desirability. Further research focused on another intervening variable that partially mediates the relationship between limited-quantity scarcity and limited-time scarcity to desirabilities, such as perceived value or social status.


Scarcity Marketing; Limited Quantity Scarcity; Limited Time Scarcity; Perceived Uniqueness; Desirability; Grabfood; Application

Full Text:



Abosag, I., Ramadan, Z. B., Baker, T., and Jin, Z. 2020. Customers’ need for uniqueness theory versus brand congruence theory: The impact on satisfaction with social network sites. Journal of Business Research, 117, 862–872. 2019.03.016.

Aggarwal, P., Jun, S., and Huh, J. 2011. Scarcity messages: A consumer competition perspective. Journal of Advertising, 40(3), 19–30. 10.2753/JOA0091-3367400302.

Amaldoss, W., and Jain, S. 2005. Pricing of conspicuous goods: A competitive analysis of social effects. Journal of Marketing Research, 42(1), 30–42. https://

Arbi, I. A. 2020, May 5. Grab reports rise in deliveries, tipping during outbreak - Business - The Jakarta Post. The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost. com/news/2020/05/05/grab-reports-rise-in-deliveries-tipping-during-outbreak.html.

Asshidin, N. H. N., Abidin, N., and Borhan, H. B. 2016. Consumer attitude and uniqueness towards international products. Procedia Economics and Finance, 35, 632–638. (16)00077-0.

Biraglia, A., Usrey, B., and Ulqinaku, A. 2021. The downside of scarcity: Scarcity appeals can trigger consumer anger and brand switching intention. Psychology and Marketing, 38(8), 1314–1322.

Cahyani, Z., Nurcahyo, R., and Farizal. 2020. Popularity analysis of mobile food ordering apps in Indonesia. 2020 IEEE 7th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Applications, ICIEA 2020, 1000–1004. 49774.2020.9102024.

Chen, H. J., and Sun, T. H. 2014. Clarifying the impact of product scarcity and perceived uniqueness in buyers’ purchase behavior of games of limited-amount version. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 26(2), 232–249. APJML-07-2013-0084.

Chen, T. Y., Yeh, T. L., and Wang, Y. J. 2020. The drivers of desirability in scarcity marketing. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 33(4), 924–944.

Chiang, C., Lin, C. S., and Chin, S. P. 2011. Optimizing time limits for maximum sales response in Internet shopping promotions. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(1), 520–526. j.eswa.2010.06.094.

Eloksari, E. A. 2020, March 20. Food deliveries, online game purchases up as people stay at home during COVID-19 pandemic. The Jakarta Post. https://

Gierl, H., and Huettl, V. 2010. Are scarce products always more attractive? The interaction of different types of scarcity signals with products’ suitability for conspicuous consumption. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 27(3), 225–235. https://

Gierl, H., Plantsch, M., and Schweidler, J. 2008. Scarcity effects on sales volume in retail. International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 18(1), 45–61. 09593960701778077.

Gupta, S. 2014. The Psychological Effects of Perceived Scarcity in a Retail Setting and Its Impact on Consumer Buyer Behavior. Winter Marketing Educators’ Conference, 1–24. robert-mittelstaedt-doctoral-symposium/.

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., and Mena, J. A. 2012. An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(3), 414–433. s11747-011-0261-6.

Han, Y. J., Nunes, J. C., and Drèze, X. 2010. Signaling status with luxury goods: The role of brand prominence. Journal of Marketing, 74(4), 15–30. https://

Hidayat, A. T., Elita, F. M., and Setiaman, A. 2012. Hubungan antara atribut produk dengan minat beli konsumen. Students E-Journal, 1(1), 19. http://

Ivanic, A. S., Overbeck, J. R., and Nunes, J. C. 2011. Status, race, and money: The impact of racial hierarchy on willingness to pay. Psychological Science, 22(12), 1557–1566. 0956797611419519.

Jang, W. E., Ko, Y. J., Morris, J. D. and Chang, Y. H. 2015. Scarcity Message Effects on Consumption Behavior: Limited Edition Product Consideration. Journal of Psychology and Marketing. 32 (10):989-100.

Knight, D. K., and Kim, E. Y. 2007. Japanese consumers’ need for uniqueness: Effects on brand perceptions and purchase intention. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 11(2), 270–280. https://

Lee, S. Y., Oh, S., and Jung, S. 2016. Mood affects consumer inferences of marketers’ scarcity claim as a sales tactic. Social Behavior and Personality, 44(7), 1163–1172. 44.7.1163.

Lee, S. Y., Oh, S., and Jung, S. 2018. Influence of scarcity claims on product evaluation: The role of reversibility of decision. Social Behavior and Personality, 46(2), 281–292. sbp.6576.

Lynn, M. 1992. The psychology of unavailability: Explaining scarcity and cost effects on value. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 13(1), 3–7. https://

Mazali, R., and Rodrigues-Neto, J. A. 2013. Dress to impress: Brands as status symbols. Games and Economic Behavior, 82, 103–131. j.geb.2013.06.009.

Miremadi, A., Fotoohi, H., Sadeh, F., Tabrizi, F., and Javidigholipourmashhad, K. 2011. The possible effects of need for uniqueness’s dimensions on luxury brands: Case of Iran and UAE. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 3(3). 10.5539/ijms.v3n3p151.

Simonson, I., and Nowlis, S. M. 2000. The role of explanations and need for uniqueness in consumer decision making: Unconventional choices based on reasons. Journal of Consumer Research, 27(1), 49– 68.

Snyder, C. R., and Fromkin, H. L. 1977. Abnormality as a positive characteristic: The development and validation of a scale measuring need for uniqueness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86(5), 518–527.

Tian, K. T., Bearden, W. O., and Hunter, G. L. 2001. Consumers’ need for uniqueness: Scale development and validation. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(1), 50–66.

Trope, Y., and Liberman, N. 2010. Construal-Level Theory of Psychological Distance. Psychological Review, 117(2), 440–463.

Tynan, C., McKechnie, S. and Chhuon, C. 2010. Co-Creating Value for Luxury Brands. Journal of Business Research. 63 (11):1156-1163.

Ward, M. K., and Broniarczyk, S. M. 2016. Ask and you shall (not) receive: Close friends prioritize relational signaling over recipient preferences in their gift choices. Journal of Marketing Research, 53(6), 1001–1018. Wu, W. Y., Lu, H. Y.,

Wu, Y. Y., and Fu, C. S. 2012. The effects of product scarcity and consumers’ need for uniqueness on purchase intention. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 36(3), 263–274. https:/ /

Zikmund, W. G., Carr, J. C., Griffi, M., and Babin, B. J. 2013. Business Research Methods. In South-Western, Cengage Learning. 9781285401188.



  • There are currently no refbacks.