Risgiyanti Risgiyanti, Rini Hidayah, Muhammad Fithrayudi T


Organizational cynicism is now an important topic in the academic and business community, but the research relating to organizational cynicism is relatively neglected. Several studies that have examined the impact of organizational cynicism on job performance directly still show different results. This study strives to overcome this research gap by examining the impact of organizational cynicism on job performance by using variables of workplace spirituality as a moderating variable. The research data was taken from the supervisor and nurse from 7 private hospitals in the Pekalongan. The samples of this study were 176 respondents. The sampling technique was using convenience sampling. This research used a survey method with a quantitative approach and using the Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis tool with the help of WarpPLS 3.0. The results showed that organizational cynicism directly affects job performance. The results also show that spirituality in the workplace has a positive effect on job performance. Tests related to the effects of moderation suggest that workplace spirituality moderates the relationship of organizational cynicism on job performance. This study opens new avenues for research on organizational cynicism and carries implications for theory and practice.


Organizational cynicism; job performance; workplace spirituality

Full Text:



Altaf, A. and Awan, M. A. 2011. Moderating Affect of Workplace Spirituality on the Relationship of Job Overload and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Business Ethics, 104(1), 93–99. s10551-011-0891-0.

Andersson, L. M. 1996. Employee cynicism: An examination using a contract violation framework. Human Relations, 49(11), 1395–1418. 10.1177/001872679604901102.

Arslan, M. and Roudaki, J. 2019. Examining the role of employee engagement in the relationship between organizational cynicism and employee performance. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 39(1–2), 118–137. IJSSP-06-2018-0087.

Benefiel, M. 2003. Mapping the terrain of spirituality in organizations research. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(4), 367–37.

Brandes, P. and Das, D. 2006. Locating behavioral cynicism at work: construct issues and perGreenhaus, Jeffrey H Allen, Tammy D Spector, Paul E Allen, Tammy D Health, Employee Fox, Suzy Spector, Paul E March, James G Ikemoto, Yusuke Suzuki, Shingo Okamoto, Hiroyuki Murakami, Hiroki As. Research in Occupational Stress and Well-Being, 5, 233–266.

Brown, R. B. 2003. Organizational spirituality: The sceptic’s version. Organization, 10(2), 393–400.

Cartwright, S. and Holmes, N. 2006. The meaning of work: The challenge of regaining employee engagement and reducing cynicism. Human Resource Management Review, 16(2), 199–208. j.hrmr.2006.03.012.

Chiaburu, D. S., Peng, A. C., Oh, I. S., Banks, G. C., and Lomeli, L. C. (2013). Antecedents and consequences of employee organizational cynicism: A metaanalysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(2), 181– 197.

Cooper, D. R. and Schindler, P. S. 2008. Business Research Methods, Tenth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Dean, J. W., Brandes, P., and Dharwadkar, R. 1998. Organizational Cynicism. The Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 341–352. 9781412952651.n216.

Dierendonck, D. van. 2004. The construct validity of Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-being and its extension with spiritual well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(3), 629–643. 10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00122-3.

Garcia-Zamor, J.-C. 2003. Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Performance. Public Administration Review, 63(3), 355–363. 9781315703817.

Gibbons, P. 2000. Spirituality at work: Definitions, measures, assumptions, and validity claims. Paper Presented at the Academy of Management. Toronto.

Gkorezis, P., Petridou, E., and Xanthiakos, P. 2014. Leader positive humor and organizational cynicism: LMX as a mediator. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 35(4), 305–315. 10.1108/LODJ-07-2012-0086.

Gotsis, G., and Kortezi, Z. 2008. Philosophical foundations of workplace spirituality: A critical approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 575–600.

Johnson, J. L. and O’Leary-Kelly, A. M. 2003. The effects of psychological contract breach and organizational cynicism: Not all social exchange violations are created equal. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(SPEC. ISS.), 627–647. 10.1002/job.207.

Khan, M. 2014. Organizational cynicism and employee turnover intention: Evidence from banking sector in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS), 8(1), 30–41.

Kim, T. Y., Bateman, T. S., Gilbreath, B., and Andersson, L. M. 2009. Top management credibility and employee cynicism: A comprehensive model. Human Relations, 62(10), 1435–1458. 10.1177/0018726709340822.

Kock. 2013. Using WarpPLS in E-collaboration Studies: What if I Have Only One Group and One Condition?. International Journal of Ecollaboration, 9(3), 1–12.

Kolodinsky, R. W., Bowen, M. G., and Ferris, G. R. 2003. Embracing workplace spirituality and managing organizational politics. In R. A. Giacalone and C. . Jurkiewicz (Eds.), Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance (pp. 164– 180). New York: M. E. Sharp.

Litzsey, C. 2003. Spirituality in Te Workplace and The Implications It Has On Employees and Organizations. Graduate School of Southern Illinois University Carbondale.

McClough, A. C., Rogelberg, S. G., Fisher, G. G., and Bachiochi, P. D. 1998. Cynicism and the quality of an individual’s contribution to an organizational diagnostic survey. Organization Development Journal, 16, 31–42.

Murphy, K. 1989. Dimensions of job performance. New York: Praeger.

Nair, P. and Kamalanabhan, T. J. 2010. The Impact of Cynicism on Ethical Intentions of Indian Managers: The Moderating Role of Their Level Of management. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 1(2), 155–159. ijtef.2010.v1.28.

Neal, J. and Biberman, J. 2003. Introduction: The leading edge in research on spirituality and organizations. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(4), 363–366. 09534810310484127.

Neck, C. P. and Milliman, J. F. 1994. Thought Self leadership: Finding Spiritual Fulfilment in Organizational Life. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 9(6), 9–16.

Neves, P. 2012. Organizational cynicism: Spillover effects on supervisor-subordinate relationships and performance. Leadership Quarterly, 23(5), 965–976.

Petchsawang, P. and Duchon, D. 2012. Journal of Management, Spirituality and Workplace spirituality, meditation, and work performance. Journal of Management, Spirituality, and Religion, 9(2), 189– 208.

Rego, A., Cunha, M. P. E., and Souto, S. 2007. Workplace spirituality, commitment, and self-reported individual performance: An Empirical Study. Management Research, 5(3), 163–183. 10.2753/JMR1536-5433050303.

Rego, A., Sousa, F., Marques, C., and Cunha, M. P. e. 2012. Authentic leadership promoting employees’ psychological capital and creativity. Journal of Business Research, 65(3), 429–437. 10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.10.003.

Sony, M. and Mekoth, N. 2019. The relationship between workplace spirituality, job satisfaction and job performance. International Journal of Process Management and Benchmarking, 9(1), 27–46. https://

Thompson, E. R. and Phua, F. T. T. 2012. A Brief Index of Affective Job Satisfaction. Group and Organization Management, 37(3), 275–307. 10.1177/1059601111434201.

Viswesvaran, C. and Ones, D. S. 2000. Perspectives on Models of Job Performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8(4), 216–226. https:/ /

Wanous, J. P., Reichers, A. E., and Austin, J. T. 1994. Organizational Cynicism: an Initial Study. Academy of Management Proceedings, 1994(1), 269–273.

Weiss, H. M. and Cropanzano, R. 1996. Affective Events Theory: A Theoretical Discussion of The Structure, Cause, and Consequences of Affective Experiences at Work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 18, 1–74.

Wilkerson, J. M., Evans, W. R., and Davis, W. D. 2008. A test of coworkers’ influence on organizational cynicism, badmouthing, and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38(9), 2273–2292.

Williams, L. J. and Anderson, S. E. 1991. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17(3), 601–617.

Yogatama, L. A. and Widyarini, N. 2015. Kajian Spiritualitas di Tempat Kerja pada Konteks Organisasi Bisnis. Jurnal Psikologi, 42(1), 1–14.



  • There are currently no refbacks.