Adi Indrayanto, Sigit W.D. Nugroho, Titi Nurfitri, Duan Hongbo


This research is a study of the relationship between work motivation and work environment on the competitive advantage that is developed by creativity and innovation. The objective of this research is to analyze the influence of work motivation and work environment on creativity and innovation in creating competitive advantage. This research conducted at tourism location in Indonesia and China. The sample determined by purposive sampling. The total respondent from this research is 368 respondents consist of 181 from Indonesian and 187 from China. Employing Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis, the results from outer models, inner models, and hypotheses testing by t-test are as follows: Work motivation has positive significant influence toward creativity. Work environment has a significant influence on creativity. Creativity has positive significant influence toward innovative. The implication from the conclusion below, suggest that tourism workers should increase work motivation because it could give positive feedback to an organization. Increasing work motivation also can increase creativity on an individual in facing dynamic environment to create competitive advantage and win over competitors.


Work Motivation; Work Environment; Creativity; Innovative; Employee

Full Text:



Amabile, T. M., and Conti, R. 1999. Changes in The Work Environment For Creativity During Downsizing. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 42. No. 6, pp. 630-640.

Choudhury, J., and Mishra, B. B. 2010. Theoretical and Empirical Investigation of Impact of Developmental HR Configuration on Human Capital Management. International Business Research, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 181–186.

De Jong, J.P.J., and Den Hartog, D.N. 2008. Innovative and Work Behavior: Measurement and Validation. Scientific Analysis of Entrepreneurship and SME. pp. 1-27.

Devanna, M.A., Fombrun, C., and Tichy, N. 1981. Human Resource Management: A Strategic Perspective. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 9. No. 3, pp. 51-68.

Falola, H.O., Osibanjo, A.O., and Ojo, S.I. 2014. Effectiveness of Training And Development On Employees’ Performance And Organization Competitiveness in The Nigerian Banking Industry.Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Brasov. Vol. 7. No. 1, pp. 161-170.

George, J.M. and Jones, G.R. 2012. Understanding and managing organizational behavior. Sixth Edition. Pearson Education, Inc. New Jersey.

Ghozali, Imam. 2008. Structural Equation Modeling Metode Alternatif dengan Partial Least Square (PLS). Second Edition. Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro: Semarang.

Hassan, M. U., Malik, A. A., Hasnain, A., Faiz, M. F., and Abbas, J. 2013. Measuring Employee Creativity and its Impact on Organization Innovation Capability and Performance in the Banking Sector of Pakistan. World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 24. No. 7, pp 949-959.

Hussein, Ananda. S. 2015. Modul Ajar Penelitian Bisnis Dan Manajemen Menggunakan Partial Least Square (PLS) Dengan SmartPLS 3.0. Fakultas ekonomi dan bisnis universitas Brawijaya. Malang.

Hutahaean, Erik. Saut. 2005. Kontribusi Pribadi Kreatif Dan Iklim Organisasi Terhadap Perilaku Inovatif, Proceeding Seminar Nasional PESAT 2005. Auditorium Universitas Gunadarma. Jakarta.

Indrayanto, A., Burgess, J., Dayaram, K., Noermijati, 2014, A case study of transformational leadership and para-police performance in Indonesia, Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Vol. 37 No. 2, pp. 373-388

Lado, Agustine A., Boyd, Nancy G., and Wright, Peter. 1992. A Competency Based Model of Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Toward A Conceptual Integration. Journal of Management, Vol. 18. No. 1, pp. 77-91.

Mathews, C., and Khann, I. K. 2016. Impact of Work Environment on Performance of Employees in Manufacturing Sector in India: Literature Review. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Vol. 5. No. 4, pp. 852-855.

Michie, J., Oughton, C., and Bennion, Y. 2002. Employee ownership, motivation, and productivity. A research report for Employees Direct from Birkbeck and The Work Foundation, pp. 1-34.

Moghimi, S., and Subramaniam, I. D. 2013. Employees’ Creative Behavior: The Role of Organizational Climate in Malaysian SMEs. International Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 8, No. 5, pp.1-12.

Mulyana., and Sutapa. 2104. Peningkatan Kapabilitas Inovasi, Keunggulan Bersaing dan Kinerja melalui Pendekatan Quadruple Helix: Studi Pada Industri Kreatif Sektor Fashion. Journal of Management Technology, Vol.13. No.3, pp. 304-321.

Munandar, Ashar. S. 2011. Psikologi Industri dan Organisasi. Universitas Indonesia (UI-Press). Jakarta.

Muogbo, U.S. 2013. The Impact of Employee Motivation on Organizational Performance (A Study of Some Selected Firms In Anambra State Nigeria. The International Journal of Engineering And Science (IJES). Vol. 2. No. 7, pp. 70-80.

Pratama, E. M. 2014. Pengaruh Kepuasan Kerja Terhadap Inovasi Organisasi Melalui Kreativitas Karyawa. Jurnal Ilmu Manajemen, Vol. 2. No. 4, pp. 1538-154.

Robbins, Stephen P & Judge, Timothy A. 2013. Organizational Behavior. 15 th Edition. Pearson Education. New Jersey.

Robichaud, Y., McGraw, E., and Roger, A. 2001. Toward The Development of A Measurement For Entrepreneurial Motivation. Journal of Development Entrepreneurship, Vol. 6. No. 2, pp. 189-202.

Sanny, Lim., Bebby, R. A., Andhika, Yogi. 2013. Analisis Pengaruh Lingkungan Kerja Dan Motivasi Terhadap Kreativitas Karyawan Perum Pegadaian (Kanwil). Binus Business Review. Vol. 4. No. 1, pp. 389-397.

Sedarmayanti. 2001. Sumber Daya Manusia dan Produktivitas Kerja. Mandar Maju. Bandung.

Sefertzi, E. 2000. Creativity. Report produced for the EC founded project. Innoregio: Dissemination of innovation and knowledge management techniques, pp. 1-19.

Soekadijo, R. G. 1996. Anatomi Pariwisata. PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta.

Sugiyono. 2012.Metode Penelitian Bisnis. Alfabeta. Bandung.

Sulaiman, I. F., Hashim, C. N., Ibrahim, M. B., and Hasan, Sharifah S. S. 2015. Impact of Creativity to Organizational Competitiveness. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 5. No. 8, pp. 106-113.

Sutrisno, Edy. 2010. Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia. First Edition. Second Printing. Prenada Media Group. Jakarta.

West, M.A. 2000. Mengembangkan Kreativitas dalam Organisasi. First Edition. Kanisius. Yogyakarta.

Wright, P.M. 1998. Introduction: Strategic Human Resource Management Research in the 21st Century. Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 8. No. 3, pp. 187-152.

Yuan, F., and Woodman, R. 2010. Innovative Behavior in The Workplace: The Role of Performance And Image Outcome Expectations. Academy of Management Journal, No. 53.Vol. 2, pp. 323–342.

Zhang, P., and Gheibi, S. 2015. From Intrinsic Motivation To Employee Creativity: The Role of Knowledge Integration And Team Psychological Safety. European Scientific Journal, Vol.11. No.11, pp. 380- 392.



  • There are currently no refbacks.